Some 6.000 years ago, some Neolithic villages became cities as a result of agricultural and commercial prosperity. These civilizations invented writting.
The first great civilizations developed along large rivers surrounded by fertile land:
Mesopotamia: River Tigris and Euphrates
India: Indus River
China: Huang He and Yangtze Rivers
Egypt: Nile River
The Mesopotamian civilization appeared in the Fertile Crescent, in the fertile plains between River Tigris and River Euphrates